Torture Overview

禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约禁止酷刑和其他残忍不人道有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》(反酷刑公约)是关于酷刑最为重要的法律文献。这份文献在1984年被联合国通过采纳,并于1987年6月26日生效。中国于1988年签署了该份公约。然后中国却对该公约第20条款赋予反酷刑委员会针对酷刑的调查权不予承认,声称对该条款予以保留。中国还宣布不接受公约第30条第一款的规定。

Other treaties prohibiting acts of torture include the Geneva Conventions; the Rome Statute on the International Criminal Court and all regional human rights treaties.

禁止酷刑委员会. 禁止酷刑委员会(CAT)由10名国际独立专家组成,他们负责监督《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》缔约国落实公约的情况。

Fact Sheet No.17, Committee Against Torture. (In English) This OHCHR fact sheet gives an overview of the work of the Committee Against Torture.

酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚问题特别报告员  联合国人权委员会在其1985/33号决议中决定任命一名特别报告员审查与酷刑有关的各种问题。在2008年6月,​​人权理事会通过其第8/8号决议,将该任务期限延长三年。

Exclusion of Evidence

伊斯坦布尔议定书. 伊斯坦布尔议定书是联合国发布的有效调查和记录酷刑和其他残忍,不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚的手册。该手册包括相关国际法律标准、道德准则和酷刑的法律调查,以及对相关人士(律师、医生、心理学家、精神病医师、人权监察员)应如何与声称遭受酷刑的受害者进行访谈的详细考虑。手册还提供了酷刑的生理和心理证据,法医报告指南和诊断实例等信息。

联合国《禁止酷刑公约》:排除酷刑所得证据 这份文件汇集了《联合国禁止酷刑和其他残忍,不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》第 15 条,非法证据排除规则的有关材料。第 15 条排除使用通过酷刑获得的证据,除非用于针对被控施用酷刑者。

Prevention of torture

要求各国采取有效的立法、行政、司法和其他措施在其司法管辖的全境内禁止使用酷刑(公约第2条第1款)

《反酷刑公约任择议定书》 本议定书意在补充1984年《联合国反酷刑国际公约》,建立了国际检查机制,检查各国依照1987年以来欧洲所采纳的关于羁押的标准。

禁止酷刑委员会《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》第 2 号一般性评论 Committee Against Torture. General Comment No. 2 (2008) Implementation of Article 2 by State parties.

Punishment of Perpetrators

Article 12, Convention Against Torture: “Each State Party shall ensure that its competent authorities proceed to a prompt and impartial investigation, wherever there is reasonable ground to believe that an act of torture has been committed in any territory under its jurisdiction.”

The crime of torture can be subject to universal jurisdiction. States  parties are expected to assist in investigating, detaining, extraditing or prosecuting persons alleged to have committed acts of torture (Articles 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9).

Redress for victims of torture

Article 13, Convention Against Torture: “Each State Party shall ensure that any individual who alleges he has been subjected to torture in any territory under its jurisdiction has the right to complain to, and to have his case promptly and impartially examined by, its competent authorities. Steps shall be taken to ensure that the complainant and witnesses are protected against all ill-treatment or intimidation as a consequence of his complaint or any evidence given.”

Victims of torture should also have an enforceable right to fair and adequate compensation. This also includes a right for victims of torture to full rehabilitation, including treatment for the physical and psychological impact of torture (Article 14).

禁止酷刑委员会. 第 3 号一般性意见 (2012 年) 缔约国对第 14 条的执行  Committee Against Torture. General Comment No.3 (2012) Implementation of Article 14 by States parties.

手册

折磨举报手册. 怎样在保护人权的国际体制内为关于折磨的指控 提供证明文件并对这种指控采取措施。This handbook was produced as a guide to help smaller/less experienced NGOs in the process of reporting torture.

关塔那摩获释囚犯 自助手册 手册内容基于我们与曾被关押在关塔那摩湾的人以及有过不同创伤经历的人的合作。手册中的想法关注如何帮关塔那摩获释囚犯应对所遭受的不公对待带来的影响。

叙事运动:对受战争影响社区的创伤恢复干预  This is a paper on the Storytelling Movement, which aims to be a realistic solution in communities, which have suffered relentless war-related trauma, and where provision of mental health care is relatively inaccessible, by teaching communities to tell their stories.

评论

“The United Nations Convention Against Torture. A Commentary.” Manfred Nowak and Elizabeth McArthur. Oxford University Press, 2008 (In English) This volume explores the problematic definition of torture in the Convention, the substantive obligations of States parties, the principle of ‘non-refoulement’, provisions for international monitoring, and also the concept of preventative visits to all places of detention as contained in the Optional Protocol to the CAT:

Pg 413: “Articles 12 and 13 contain two of the most important provisions for the prevention of torture and ill-treatment: the obligation of States parties to investigate every potential case of torture and ill-treatment, either on the basis of an allegation by the victim (Article 13) or ex officio on the basis of any reasonable ground to believe that an act of torture or ill-treatment has been committed (Article 12).”

Pg 431: “The main difference between Articles 13 and 12 is that the latter shifts the responsibility to initiate an investigation from the victim to the State authorities most directly involved. Since torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment usually takes place behind closed doors without any outside witnesses, and since the victims are often too afraid to complain officially about such practices, the heads of police stations, interrogation offices, pre-trial detention facilities and prisons  have a particular responsibility to prevent torture…”

国际法禁止使用通过酷刑获得的证据 Discussion on exclusion of evidence (APT)

 

案件

Blanco Abad 诉西班牙,1998 年 5 月 14 日 CAT/C/20/D/59/1996 委员会发现,西班牙当局没有履行其在《联合国禁止酷刑公约》第 12 条和第 13 条项下的义务。

Dragan Dimitrijevic诉塞尔维亚和黑山,第207/2002号来文. U.N. Doc. CAT/C/33/D/207/2002 (2004) 关于违反《公约》第12条和第13条的指控,委员会注意到,在申诉人于2000年1月31日提起刑事申诉后,公共检察官从未告知其是否正在或已经进行了调查。

Bouabdallah LTAIEF先生诉突尼斯,第189/2001号来文. U.N. Doc. CAT/C/31/D/189/2001 (2003)

Henri Unai Parot 诉西班牙,第 6/1990 号来文. U.N. Doc. A/50/44 at 62 (1995)

Radivoje Ristic 诉南斯拉夫,第 113/1998 号来文 U.N. Doc. CAT/C/26/D/113/1998 (2001) 来文提交人声称,缔约国违反了《公约》第 2 条、第 12 条、第 13 条、第 14 条和第 16 条的规定。