公正审判

《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》 中国于1998年10月5日签署了《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》(简称《公民及政治权利公约》),但是至今尚未批准。The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is the most important legal instrument covering fair trial rights. China signed the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), on October 5, 1998, but has still not ratified it.

欧洲保障人权和根本自由公约  The European Convention on Human Rights is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in EuropeArticle 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights also covers fair trial rights: 第 6条: 获得公正诉讼的权利。 在决定某人的公民权利和义务或者在决定对某人确定任何刑事罪名时,任何人有理由在合理的时间内受到依法设立的独立而公正的法院的公平且公开的审讯。判决应当公开宣布。The Convention established the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR).

律师作用

关于律师作用的基本原则  第八届联合国预防犯罪和罪犯待遇大会通过。一九九0年八月二十七日至九月七日 ,古巴哈瓦那。It outlines the basic principles on the duties and responsibilities of lawyers in criminal justice matters.

国际律师协会-法律职业行为国际原则评论。 国际律师协会 2011年5月28日通过。This document was designed for the use of practicing lawyers across the globe. The 36-page publication provides lawyers with a framework to carry out their professional duties in a manner consistent with upholding the dignity and respect of the profession in relation to their clients.

欧洲法律职业核心原则宪章及欧洲律师行为准则 These texts aim to help bar associations or lawyers that are struggling to establish their independence; and to increase understanding among lawyers of the importance of the their role in society.

联合国关于在刑事司法系统中获得法律援助机会的原则和准则 2012 年 1 2 月 2 0 日联合国大会决议。These provide guidance for all countries in establishing an effective system of legal aid, based on international standards and good practice.

预审

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 9 focuses on pre-trial rights.《公民及政治权利公约》第 七 条: “任何人均不得加以酷刑或施以残忍的、不人道的或侮辱性的待遇或刑罚。特别是对任何人均不得未经其自由同意而施以医药或科学试验。”

第35号一般性意见——第9条:人身自由和安全通过关于人身自由和安全的第9条的一般性意见的进程 16 December 2014. Human Rights Committee, General comment No. 35. Article 9  on Liberty and security of person.

任意拘留问题工作组 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Fact Sheet No. 26 on Arbitrary Detention.

被强迫或非自愿失踪问题 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Fact Sheet on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances. Fact Sheet No. 6/Rev.3.

审判

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Articles 14 and 15 provide fair trial rights: In Article 14, it states: “在判定对任何人提出的任何刑事指控或确定他在一件诉讼案中的权利和义务时,

第32号一般性意见第十四条:在法庭和裁判所前一律平等和获得公正审判的权利 23 August 2007. Human Rights Committee: General Comment No. 32. Article 14. Right to equality before courts and tribunals and to a fair trial.

儿童权利公约 The Convention on the Rights of the Child also guarantees fair trial rights, specifically for children. 第四十条: “要求独立公正的主管当局或司法机构在其得到法律或其他适当协助的情况下,通过依法公正审理迅速做出判决,并且须有其父母或法定监护人在场,除非认为这样做不符合儿童的最大利益,特别要考虑到其年龄或状况.” 中国于1992年批准了《儿童权利公约》, 中国对第六条作了保留。

儿童权利委员会(CRC) 儿童权利委员会由18名独立专家组成,负责监督缔约国落实《儿童权利公约》的情况。

关于司法机关独立的基本原则  These were endorsed by the UN General Assembly in 1985 and provide guidance to states on laws and practices necessary to safeguard the independence of judges.

加强司法行为基本原则   联合国经济及社会理事会。ECOSOC 2006/23。

手册

2014《公正审判手册》 This is a practical guide to international fair trial standards, a useful tool for lawyers, judges and trial observers. It is also used by political prisoners representing themselves in court as a DIY defence guide.